I have some Program that I do in Visual Basic 6, can I run that source code in Atom?
If you can run it from the command line, you can run it in Atom.
Atom is built as a text editor. Add-on packages attempt to make it an IDE.
What you ask is a tall order. No already made solution, as far as I can tell. The best for you is to look into MSBUILD and its expansion. From there you might be able to build up some tools to achieve your goal. Not even vsCode offers this now, so expect a challenge.