How to import ipcRenderer in vue.js ? __dirname is not defined

I’m struggling to understand how to correctly import ipcRenderer in a .vue file.

I put in /src/background.js file :

webPreferences: {
  nodeIntegration:false,
  contextIsolation: true, // protects against prototype pollution
  preload: path.join(__dirname, "../dist_electron/preload.js"),
}

And I put in preload.js :

window.ipcRenderer = ipcRenderer

webpack.config.js :

module.exports = {
  entry: './src/background.js',
  target: 'node',
  output: {
    path: path.join(__dirname, 'build'),
    filename: 'background.js'
  }
}

In order to facilitate the debugging, I created a github repo.
You can git clone the repo from here: https://github.com/raphael10-collab/ElectronVueTypeScriptScaffolding.git

After executing yarn -> yarn electron:serve you will get the correct page.

But when activating in /src/views/Home.vue this line:

//import { ipcRenderer } from ‘electron’

you will get this error:

[__dirname is not defined][1]

Environment Info:

  System:
    OS: Linux 5.4 Ubuntu 18.04.5 LTS (Bionic Beaver)
    CPU: (8) x64 Intel(R) Core(TM) i7-4790K CPU @ 4.00GHz
  Binaries:
    Node: 14.5.0 - ~/.nvm/versions/node/v14.5.0/bin/node
    Yarn: 1.22.4 - /usr/bin/yarn
    npm: 6.14.5 - ~/.nvm/versions/node/v14.5.0/bin/npm
  Browsers:
    Chrome: 85.0.4183.83
    Firefox: 79.0
  npmPackages:
    @vue/babel-helper-vue-jsx-merge-props:  1.0.0 
    @vue/babel-plugin-transform-vue-jsx:  1.1.2 
    @vue/babel-preset-app:  4.4.6 
    @vue/babel-preset-jsx:  1.1.2 
    @vue/babel-sugar-functional-vue:  1.1.2 
    @vue/babel-sugar-inject-h:  1.1.2 
    @vue/babel-sugar-v-model:  1.1.2 
    @vue/babel-sugar-v-on:  1.1.2 
    @vue/cli-overlay:  4.4.6 
    @vue/cli-plugin-babel: ~4.4.0 => 4.4.6 
    @vue/cli-plugin-e2e-cypress: ~4.4.0 => 4.4.6 
    @vue/cli-plugin-router: ~4.4.0 => 4.4.6 
    @vue/cli-plugin-typescript: ~4.4.0 => 4.4.6 
    @vue/cli-plugin-unit-mocha: ~4.4.0 => 4.4.6 
    @vue/cli-plugin-vuex: ~4.4.0 => 4.4.6 
    @vue/cli-service: ~4.4.0 => 4.4.6 
    @vue/cli-shared-utils:  4.4.6 
    @vue/component-compiler-utils:  3.2.0 
    @vue/preload-webpack-plugin:  1.1.2 
    @vue/test-utils: ^1.0.3 => 1.0.3 
    @vue/web-component-wrapper:  1.2.0 
    babel-helper-vue-jsx-merge-props:  2.0.3 
    typescript: ^3.9.7 => 3.9.7 
    vue: ^2.6.11 => 2.6.11 
    vue-class-component: ^7.2.5 => 7.2.5 
    vue-cli-plugin-electron-builder: ~2.0.0-rc.4 => 2.0.0-rc.4 
    vue-hot-reload-api:  2.3.4 
    vue-i18n: ^8.20.0 => 8.20.0 
    vue-loader:  15.9.3 
    vue-property-decorator: ^9.0.0 => 9.0.0 
    vue-router: ^3.2.0 => 3.3.4 
    vue-style-loader:  4.1.2 
    vue-template-compiler: ^2.6.11 => 2.6.11 
    vue-template-es2015-compiler:  1.9.1 
    vuex: ^3.5.1 => 3.5.1 
    vuex-class: ^0.3.2 => 0.3.2 
  npmGlobalPackages:
    @vue/cli: 4.4.6

node version: v14.5.0

I tried also to set webPreferences as follows (with nodeIntegration: true) :

webPreferences: {
  nodeIntegration: true,
  //contextIsolation: true, // protects against prototype pollution
  //preload: path.join(__dirname, "../dist_electron/preload.js"),
},

and got this error:

Uncaught TypeError: fs.existsSync is not a function

But I already specified in webpack.config.js the target ‘node’:

in webpack.config.js :

module.exports = {
  entry: './src/background.js',
  target: 'node',
  output: {
    path: path.join(__dirname, 'build'),
    filename: 'background.js'
  }
}

So… how to solve this new problem?

By the way,
Why must I put

webPreferences: {
    nodeIntegration: true,
} 

if, for security reasons, it is more secure to have:

webPreferences: {
  nodeIntegration:false,
  contextIsolation: true, // protects against prototype pollution
  preload: path.join(__dirname, "../dist_electron/preload.js"),
}

dist_electron/preload.js :

const {
    contextBridge,
    ipcRenderer
} = require("electron");

// Expose protected methods that allow the renderer process to use
// the ipcRenderer without exposing the entire object
contextBridge.exposeInMainWorld(
    "api", {
        send: (channel, data) => {
            // whitelist channels
            let validChannels = ["toMain"];
            if (validChannels.includes(channel)) {
                ipcRenderer.send(channel, data);
            }
        },
        receive: (channel, func) => {
            let validChannels = ["fromMain"];
            if (validChannels.includes(channel)) {
                // Deliberately strip event as it includes `sender` 
                ipcRenderer.on(channel, (event, ...args) =>   
func(...args));
            }
        }
    }
);

window.ipcRenderer = ipcRenderer

?

In vue.config.js I’ve put:

module.exports = {
  pluginOptions: {
    electronBuilder: {
      preload: 'dist_electron/preload.js',
      // Or, for multiple preload files:
      //preload: { preload: 'src/preload.js', otherPreload: 
      //'src/preload2.js' }
    }
  }
}

But I get the same error when I do

yarn electron:serve

“UncaughtReferenceError: __dirname is not defined”

When setting nodeIntegration: true (but I would prefer to set it to false, and use preload.js file), I get this other error (as above):

"Uncaught TypeError: fs.existsSync is not a function"

How to solve the problem?
Looking forward to your kind help